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Definition of Geography

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Definition of Geography

It is the science that studies and describes the shape of the Earth, or the distribution and arrangement of the elements on the Earth’s surface; the term comes from the Greek words Geo (earth) and graphe (description). The geographic study includes both the physical environment and the relationship of human beings to that physical environment. In other words, it describes geographic features such as climate, soils, relief forms, water or plant formations, along with the elements that study human geography, such as population entities, different cultures, networks of communication and other modifications made by the man in the physical environment. This implies the need for a detailed analysis in which other sciences and disciplines provide valuable data. All this raises the fact that geography is not an isolated science, but rather it links with geology, astronomy, history, economics politics and the natural sciences.

In order to study the geography, different geographic methods are used: data collection, annotation of the results of the studies in the form of letters, graphs, texts, especially in maps, and, finally, the analysis of said information.

From a global point of view, geography can be divided into regional and general. The regional geography, studying the various areas of land and focuses mainly on the unique and particular human traits and physical combinations that characterize each region and the differences between each other.

The general geography studies human and physical elements of the Earth with an individual character. For its study it is divided in branches: physical geography (it studies the form and structure of the terrestrial surface , is subdivided in geomorphology, climatology and terrestrial and marine hydrography); biological geography (studies the manifestations of animal and plant life), and human geography (researches the man and its spatial distribution, its productive activity and its territorial organization, is subdivided into demographic, economic and social geography, rural and urban, and politics ).

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